By Didier BERTIN – 15 APRIL 2010




We have recently mentioned in our last essay “The Roots of Israel”, that the European Anti-Semitism was the generator of the need to create a Jewish Home land and indicated last events of anti-Semitism before the independence of Israel. We would like   to present through a wider scope of European anti-Semitism illustrated by a few examples classified by nature and chronology, a synthesis aiming to identify its main root. Despite the word Anti-Semitism was created in the 19th century in Germany, we will utilize it from its effective beginning.

In this text the words Christianity will refer to Jesus’ philosophy and Church to Western and Eastern Churches (Roman and Orthodox) since the link between the two is far to be evident.

The mentioned events are not at all exhaustive but only illustrate the chronologic and geographic evolution.




The Roman Empire created the ground for Anti-Semitism development with Diaspora; the latter and its preceding actions in Judea might also be considered as first acts of Anti-Semitism committed by European People.


66-73 - In the frame of Roman Period, which started in 31 BCE, the repression of Jews is organised by Vespasian and then by Titus following an uprising in Judea. And in 70 Titus destroyed the temple of Jerusalem.


135 – After theRevolt of Bar-Kokhba: Hadrian expelled the Jews from Judea.

The Jews were considered thereafter as virulent rebels in the whole Roman Empire.




On 1st Century the Greeks of Minor Asia criticized the Jews for observing the Shabbat day and being absolved from the official idolatrous Religion.

Plutarch was very critical regarding Shabbat and Jewish food, and other traditions regarded as superstition and thought that the Tabernacles Feast has a Dyonisian character.

In 38, there were anti-Semitic riots in Alexandria under reign of Caligula. Apion was elected by the people of Alexandria in order to convince Caligula of the justification of anti-Semitism riots as this was reported by Flavius  Josephe.

Other authors thought that Jews were atheists since their God was not visible.




The Judeo-Christian beliefs were close in many aspects of those of Essenes as for exampleby messianic belief, baptism renouncement to material goods, sharing of goods according to individual needs. Jesus ‘philosophy was described by four witnesses; their testimonies were written between 65 and 110 years after the events. According to them his guidelines were clear and  simple: generosity, brotherly love in the larger extent, compassion with the effective lot of people  whatever they could expect in paradise, abandon of any aggressiveness, equality of all people, distance from material goods and critical view of rich people, sharing of goods in favour of those who are needing, high tolerance regarding all people without any prudery and forgiveness especially if it requests an effort.

We will see that unfortunately the Church over centuries and dishonestly in his name built an organization close of paganism supporting violence, intolerance, hatred and massacres.

Church was built far later after Jesus ‘death by people, who took initiatives to transform Christianity according to their own criteria.

Paul advocated the divorce with Jewish roots and a simplification of access to Christianity in order to make it more attractive to pagans; he finally imposed his opinion and the Church started to be much more Paulinian than Christian. In addition asceticism and high mysticism were also added to Church doctrine under the influence of Greek philosophers as Plato.

Thereafter the Church went to the extreme by questioning the nature of Jesus himself and decided to determine who Jesus was by its own decision.

1800 disagreeing bishops (1000 from East and 800 from west) met in the first council of Nicea in 325 to decide of Jesus’ nature.

Roman Emperor Constantine aware of the contradictions in the doctrine of the Church and ordered the organization of Nicea’s Council.

Contradictory proposals were made and the Council finally decided that Jesus was himself God and son of God and also to finish with the Jewish calendar followed by Jesus.

A second Council called the first Council of Constantinople and a third Council called the Council of Ephesus took place respectively in 381 and 431 to adopt the controversial belief in Trinity including Holy Spirit and declared for the first time that and since it was decided in 325 that Jesus was God, his mother should be with prudery considered as a “virgin” disserving veneration.

In 787 the second council of Nicea authorized after hesitations in the past, the adoration of Icons.

With trinity and Iconophily Church was becoming progressively a pagan current and divorced with Christianity; this situation will only be reconsidered in 1962 after two millennium of intolerance and violence inspired by the Church’s doctrine.

Among the additives, which drive Church far away from Christianity we may thus note the (i) Mariology (Cult of Mary), (ii) Saintology (Cult of Saints),(iii) Iconophily (adoration of representations),(iv) Trinity which is “a clear tritheism”; Church wanted however to remain arbitrary a monotheism  and thus explained officially that tritheism is monotheism as logic result of a “Mystery.” – Trinity idea was introduced for the first time 180 years Jesus ‘death-, (iv) “God murder” concept as a consequence of the decision taken in the first Nicea Council as such and as a major source of hatred and slaughters , (v) Theophagy “viewed as real” through the Eucharist and (vi) culture of mysticism and which was also a source of slaughters, (vii) Cult of small miracles. Small miracles are negligible magic events convincing the mob of divine presence and are due to collective or individual auto suggested hallucinations or to misinterpretations. Virgin whose divine part was a late choice of Bishops and not of Jesus as closer to simple humans, is often preferred to Jesus in matter of hallucinations - Church was itself sometimes annoyed by these hallucinations and was more follower than initiator. This belief may come from assumed magic made by Jesus but this was reported by witnesses and written a century later by people who might have wished to magnify the events – and (viii) asceticism and distorted view of sexuality- Priests and clerical orders should practice asceticism and abstinence –Saint-woman are preferably virgins as a signal of purity, in Catholic Church Priests are forced to Celibacy and Divorces are forbidden  – this has a frustration and guilt effect on human natural and may generate pathologies and prevented the Church from understanding many major and existential issues.

In 313 and 380, Church doctrine was imposed as the belief and then exclusive belief of the whole Roman Empire a strong temporal power support.

Church adopted the highly centralised and hierarchic model of the Roman Empire and created dioceses on the basis of Roman Provinces governed by bishops under the authority of the Patriarch of Roma or Pope. Rome became the centre of Church (before the East-West Schism of 1054) and Latin its language because Church was comfortably living in the Roman Empire until its fall. The fact that the fist Pope Shimon Bar Yona from Galilee nicknamed Peter and disciple of Jesus would have died in Rome is due to the assumption that Babylon means Rome in the Bible.

After the fall of Rome in 476, Church exercised a vast campaign of conversion of Barbarians and their leaders to maintain its power on the new masters. The conversion of Clovis and Francs in 496 was a bright start followed by Visigoths, Anglo-Saxons, Germanics, Slavic people, Celts, Vikings...

Church exercised a substantial influence on the new Christian Kings and then remained a strong temporal Power up to the point that later Kings were under the authority of Inquisitors.


The Churches are often luxurious palaces by external architecture and richness of inside decorum, with many icons and human representations aiming to impress and frighten since they valued “death of Jesus and Saints in high painful conditions.”

The huge representations of Jesus crucified presented to the mob, is a real call to murder of the assumed Jewish God killers.

Pain, suffering, abstinence were assumed to compensate faults on earth and open paradise and this was why the painful lot of poor people on earth was not an important issue for the Church, which prefer to remain close of Kings and later of dictators.

Following the model of the Temple of Jerusalem, Churches are sanctuary places and include an altar in front of which the sole sacrificial act is the theophagy through Eucharist; Eucharist is organized by Clergymen wearing liturgical clothes resembling to those of high Priests of the Temple of Jerusalem.

Eucharist is not a symbolic act of theophagy - digestion of the body and blood of Jesus and then of God - but “real” according to the Church as a result of the assumed miraculous intervention of the Holy Spirit.

Eucharist ceremony was inspired by the last Passover meal of Jesus, which included Matsa (Unleavened bread) and wine. Jesus would have probably as a symbol, shared the Matsa as his body and the wine as his blood.

The fact that Church declared Matsa and wine as real body and blood led the Christian mob to many anti-Semitic murders. Jews were killed because they were accused to have broken the host (name of Matsa in Eucharist) and then to have attempt to kill God. Similarly Jews were accused to utilise real Christian blood to make Matsa for Passover.

This accusation was still the reason taken in 1903 for the assassination of 49 Jews in Kishinev (Russia).

Initially the propagation of Christianity probably aimed to bring monotheism and Moral rules to Pagan world and even the accommodation monotheism with adaptations to pagan made by Paul against the advice of the first Christians were not made to make of Christianity a tool of hatred.

Reformed Churches were born on 16th century as a result of dissatisfaction from official Church and are not centralised. They were a minor part of Christian world but represent today 39% of Christians spread over 800 different currents. They intended to return to initial values of Christianity but this was often in vain and with a lack of substance. The founders of Reform Luther and Calvin were clearly hostile to Judaism.

USA, which is a reformed country, was a clear shelter for Jews out of Europe and mostly for reasons arising from American History.

The fact that Church was not Christian was also illustrated in the context of the paroxysm of WW2; the Holy See remained totally neutral before and during the War easing then the Holocaust process in the middle of Christian countries.

The proof that the Church is not Christian is the fact that the Church decided to organize the Council Vatican 2 in 1962 in an attempt to Christianize itself after a History of hatred and violence.

Jews lived more quietly in Muslim countries since Islam is a religion keeping severely its monotheist heritage far from Paganism. The situation of Jews deteriorated in Muslim countries mainly as the result of the contemporary territorial conflict in the Middle East.

The practice of Church doctrine is progressively disappearing in western countries as a result of Education and information and because it is clear that the advanced social Democracies took the best of Jesus’ Philosophy on the contrary to the Church in a civil frame cleaned of any form of Religion.





The crusades are the fight to conquest Holy Land by the way of arms requested by the popes.

With the wish of conquest of Holy Land, the Crusader spirit appeared and with it the good Christian became the Christian Knight.

The Christian Knight was a fighter intending to kill non-Christian people far from Jesus’ principles.

This new spirit increased slaughters and expelling of Jews. The first Crusade of 1095 involved the fleeing of Jews to avoid forced baptism and massacres and the phenomenon the Jewish homeless wanderer assumed to suffer for his sins grew.

In France the Jews of Rouen were slaughtered by the crusaders and those of Orleans and Limoges were expelled. In Germany slaughters under Crusades were more systematic e.g. in Mainz more than 1000 Jews were killed.




Life of Jews worsened in Middle Age because of virulent beliefs spread by Churches:

- Jews poisons wells and spread the black plague

- Jews conspired against Church

- Jews sacrifice Christian children during Passover (Easter), this belief remained in force until the twentieth century.



 Jews ‘activities were often limited by law to money lending, which was considered as  improper for Christians and by the same token their assets  were easier to seize by the Kings. For example in 1182, the French King Philippe Auguste seized the whole assets of Jews and expelled them from France; after this act of delinquency, he authorised them to come back.



In 1215 the 4th Christian Council of Latran obliged Jews to be visibly differentiated of Christians. The Jews were obliged to wear pointed hats or a yellow round piece of fabric on theirclothes. The yellow colour represented the betrayal e.g. Judas was often illustrated in yellow and the round form represented the coins received by Judas. This yellow round piece of fabrics was the ancestor of the yellow star of 1941.

In 1516 the closed district of Venice, where Jews were obliged to remain was named “Ghetto” because of the presence of a foundry called Ghetto in Italian language.



Among many we may note the following events in France and Germany:

In 1289, Charles of Anjou (France) expelled the Jews from the French Provinces of Maine and Anjou.

In 1298 heavy massacres of Jews occurredin Rintfleisch in the German province of Franconia.

On 17 September 1394, Charles VI expelled all Jews from France.




Spain and Portugal were an Islamic territory since 711-716 and in 1063 the Pope Alexander II called for Christian crusades in order to re-conquest Spain and Portugal by promising “Indulgences” to the volunteers. An Indulgence is a letter signed by the Pope to ease the access to Paradise of the letter beneficiary.

Indulgences are thus the step from paganism to pagan trade made by the Church. Reconquista was finished on 2d January 1492 with the surrender of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada. Almost immediately after the conquest of Granada, a decree of expulsion of all non converted Jews from Spain was promulgated on 31st March 1492. Approximately 120 000 persons were expelled. Gradually to the Reconquista, the Jews remained prisoners in the “Aljamas”

-Jewish districts- on the newly acquired Catholic lands and in 1391 many massacres occurred in Spain e.g. 4000 Jews were killed in Sevilla, and many Jews preferred to Convert.

Converted Jews were called Marranos, which comes from the word “Marrana” (Female Pork in Spanish) meanwhile converted Muslims were called Moorish;

Marranos and Moorish were accused to practice secretly their initial religion, and a new rule was applied called law of «Liempieza de Sangre» or “blood purity” -similarly to racist theories of 19th and 20th centuries- e.g. admission to Civil servant functions was restricted to people being able to demonstrate that their family were Catholic for at least five generations.

From 1483 to 1498, the Inquisitor Torquemada wanted to be sure of the sincerity of conversion trough death by fire and killed about 2000 Jews. During Torquemada’s era, Marranos fled Spain.




Poland welcomed the Jews from 1333 to 1572 and was a real shelter from all those who were expelled from Western Europe.Casimir III the Great invited the Jews to populate the polish eastern territories during his reign from 1333 to 1370. Jews came in the sole European shelter known asParadisus Judaeorum”from Western Europe countries as England, France, Germany and Spain. Jewish presence had started in Poland with the Crusades. With more or less favourable moments, Poland remained a Jewish centre where they were welcomed by many dynasties until 1572. 

The lot of Jews became similar to those of Russia when most of the territories of the Polish and Lithuanian Union were integrated to Russian Empire in 1793 and 1795.

Russian Empire inherited with the territories of the Polish and Lithuanian Union and of its very large Jewish population and had thus the largest Jewish population in the world. In 1897 (census date), 5 200 000 Jews were living in the Russian Empire.

In 1804, few years after Polish and Lithuanian territories integration, the Tsar determined restricted areas where the Jews were obliged to stay and called the “Pale”. These areas included a part of Baltic coast and of black sea (Odessa), Belarus, Ukraine, Caucasus and Astrakhan. Jews were then kept out of the territory of Holy Russia. The Jews were not authorized to own land and to travel freely. In 1897, 93% of the Russian Jewish population was living in the limits of the Pale.


The Reign of Alexander II (1855-1881)

Alexander II (1818-1881) was Tsar of Russia from 3d March 1855 and also King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland; he was the liberator of Serfs in 1861. Progressively, Alexander II relaxed the constraints of Jewish life; he authorized them to own land and properties, to freely travel in the whole Russia and broke the isolation of the “Pale”. Jews started to integrate the Russian Society and many of them started to speak Russian instead of Yiddish. Unfortunately Alexander II was assassinated in 1881.

The Reign of Alexander III (1881-1894)

Despite he was the son of Alexander II, Alexander III (1845-1894) had an opposite policy and re-introduced Russia to darkness during his reign from 1881 to 1894.

Alexander III was highly anti-Semitic; he woke up the deep-rooted anti-Semitism spread by the Orthodox Church of Russia.

Jews were “surprisingly” accused by the Russian Government of the murder of their benefactor, Alexander II. This was the start of major slaughters of Jews and destructions of their properties named Pogroms and which took place in 166 Russian cities.POGROM come from “Po” meaning “entirely” and “Grommet” meaning “destroy”.

In the sole year 1881 and 1882, one hundred Pogroms took place, the worst ones in Elizabethgrad, Kiev, Odessa, Warsaw and Balta.In 1882, an English Newspaper used the word «Pogrom» for the first time outside Russia.

Authorities, Church representatives and the agents of  Tsar‘s secret police – Okhrana  Otdeleniye (Security Section), called Okhrana - incited the mob to exactions.

Jews were maintained into areas sometimes more restricted than the Pale. They were banned from rural areas and their access to Education was limited in the Pale to 10% of the whole population.In 1886, Jews were expelled out of Kiev and in 1891 out of Moscow and then out of Saint Petersburg and Kharkov.

Alexander III declared often that: “The Jews have crucified our Master and have shed his precious blood."

The Jewish Russian policy was based on the 3 thirds: one third converted, one third expelled and the last third killed.

“Okhrana” wrote, “The Protocol of the Elders of Zion” in 1901, in which 24 members of a so-called secret Jewish international Government explain in 24 chapters, their plan to dominate the world, in order to stir up Anti-Semitism.

In 1924 Hitler wrote in “Mein Kampf”:The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", have showed how the whole existence of this people is based on a permanent lie, Frankfurter Zeitung tries to persuade the universe that is not authentic. The book sets out clearly what many Jews can perform unconsciously.”

A wave of pogroms took place from 1903 to1906, leaving thousands of Jews dead and many more woundedas inKishinev, Bessarabia where a 2-part pogrom was experienced in 1903 and 1905 and made 68 killed, 650 casualties and 700 houses destroyed or in Odessa where 2 500 Jews were killed in 1905.

The Pogrom of Kishinev of 1903 occurred on the rumour that a Christian man was killed to utilize his blood to prepare the unleavened bread of Passover.

Many Pogroms were organized after the failure of the Russian Revolution of 1905.From 1881 to 1914, many Jews fled the Pogroms and approximately two millions of them immigrate to America.By 1917 the number of Jewish orphans amounted to more than 300 000 children. 




Napoleon emancipated the Jews in all the European countries he conquered. After his defeat, the Austrian chancellor, Metternich convinced the Europeans to cancel the Jewish emancipation obtained under French revolutionary ideas propagated by Napoleon.Nederland and France were the only countries, which maintained the Jews rights.



In 1905, Lord Balfour Prime Minster obtained the adoption of the "Aliens Act" in order to prevent the Jews from Russia and Poland to shelter in Great Britain when the pogroms reached a climax. For United Kingdom, the solution to persecution of European Jews was out of Europe as per the statement expressed by "Lord Arthur Balfour, the Foreign Secretary Office of the Prime Minister David Lloyd George, on 2 November 1917. Despite this statement was in line with the Jewish people trying to find a shelter, it was also in line with the alien act of 1905.As a matter of fact many Jews joined the Revolutionary movement in Russia which was opposed to Pogroms, and this was unpleasant for British. In 1917 the London Times wrote that Lenin and his supporters had Germano-Jewish blood and worked for the Germans.

Nevertheless the settlement of Jews in Palestine was suddenly opposed to the British interest; United Kingdom failed voluntarily to organize the Sharing of Palestine as this was requested by the League of Nations in 1922 and left the area in state of was after 26 years of administration.


The Russian Revolution gave the Jews the same rights as those of other Russian citizens. In 1917, the white Russian Armies of Tsarist Generals Koltchak and Denikine slaughtered 60 000 Jews in Ukraine. The Jewish trade Union and Zionist Workers Union: Bund and Poale Zion joined the Revolutionary Movement. From 1917 to 1920, more than 1000 Pogroms with 30 000 killed people were perpetrated by the opponent to the Revolution.A few of them were also made by anti-Semitic group of the Red army. Despite emancipation was permitted, Jewish identity was questioned in the frame of fight against Religions.

The root of Anti-Semitism were deep in Russian population and when Russian Authorities lost control on territories because of German troops progress in 1941, civil populations started slaughters of Jews with the support of the German “Einsatzgruppen”.

From 1945 to 1953 Jews were no more victims of Anti-Semitism but of the heavy criminal paranoia of the dictator Stalin. The perverted change in Revolution permitted the Stalin dictatorship. A “Jewish anti-Fascist committee” was created in USSR to publish a “Black Book” documenting the German anti-Jewish crimes in USSR. The Black Book was only edited in New York in 1946 and censored in USSR. In 1948 Stalin organised the murder of Mikhoels, Chairman of the anti-Fascist Jewish Committee in charge of the “Black Book» publication. Under the instructions of Stalin, the members of the Jewish anti-Fascist Committee were arrested in 1952 and 13 were shot to death.

In 1948, twenty five of the leading Jewish writers arrested in 1948 were secretly executed in Lubianka prison in August 1952.

In 1952 Stalin imagined that Jewish Russian Physicians might utilise their Medical position to kill Soviet leaders. On 13 January1953, 9 physicians called “Saboteurs-Doctors” were arrested, including 6 Jews. They were suspected to have killed Jdanov an important Soviet leader and to prepare other murders of Soviet leaders with the support of Jewish Organizations. These Events were known as « The Doctors Plot. » Stalin would have envisaged to deport all Jews to Siberia but fortunately died before on 5th March 1953.

USSR supported Israel in 1947 more than USA expecting it can be an ally of the Socialist block. In 1947 Andreï Gromiko - Foreign affairs Minister of USSR- accused western world to have been unable to host safely Jews in his speech at UNO and Czechoslovakia provided arms to Israel till 1949, meanwhile USA organized an embargo. When Stalin decided that Israel will not play the part he expected, his madness struck Jewish members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Fourteen people were arrested in November 1951, including Rudolf Slansky, former Secretary General of the Communist Party and Vladimir Clementis, former Foreign Affairs Minister; they were accused to have given too many positions in the communist Party and Government to people called "bourgeois nationalists and Zionists." Out of the 14 people, 11 were Jews. Rudolf Slansky and Vladimir Clementis were shot to death in 1952.



In 1879, the word Anti-Semite was created in Germany to describe the racist agenda of the Protestant Clergyman Adolf Stöcker (1835-1909). Adolf Stöcker was before Hitler a fanatic German anti-Semite who attracted many Protestants to his ideas. Adolf Stöcker was the representative of the German Conservative Party which attracted the Social Christian Party.

In 1880, the anti-Semite book of Heinrich Gothard von Treitschke“Noch einige Bemerkungen zur Judenfrage”and of Eugen Dühring Die Judenfrage als Frage der Racenschaedlichkeit”became best sellers because they showed that the Jewish problem originated from Race. As a result of their books a public protest was signed to request the restriction of the freedom of Jews.

Many anti-Semitic Movements were created in Germany, which led to steps against Jews. The renewal of the Medieval Christian belief of the “ritual murder of children” culminated with the scandalous court cases of Xanten in 1892 and Könitz in 1900.

In 1924 and 1925, Hitler wrote “Mein Kampf “in which he presented his pan-Germanic, racist and anti-Semitic doctrine. He found inspiration in the racist literature very popular in that time including Eugen Dühring, Heinrich Treitschke, Arthur Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouse,  Houston Stewart Chamberlain.

Hitler adopted the existing racist theories of an anti-Semitism based on racist theories as a key part of his Pan Germanic agenda. He found in Church doctrine a good support for his own conscience as shown at the end of the second Chapter of “Mein Kampf” “Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna”: “Nature takes revenge when we transgress its commandments, so I think to act in the spirit of the Almighty, our creator, because in defending myself against the Jew, I fight to defend the Lord's work.”

The allies of WW1 and especially France imposed gigantic payments of indemnities to a totally ruined Germany, which involved the collapse of the German Democratic Republic of Weimar, ruined the efforts for peace of Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand, and paved the way to power of Hitler.

On 17 October 1933, the Nazi party became the unique party after dissolution of others and obtained 92% of votes to the general elections.

In 1938, the Crystal night (Kristal Nacht), an anti-Jewish Pogrom was organized in whole Germany. Crystal made reference to the pieces of glass from broken Jewish shop windows. In September 1939 Germany and USSR invaded Poland as a result of an agreement between the two countries. In 1918, Poland had acquired territories from Prussia and after a conflict with Russia from1919 to 1922 obtained Russian eastern territories which were in the past taken from Poland and given to Russian Empire.

As a result of these territories acquisition from 1918 to 1922, Poland gathered in 1939 the highest Jewish population in the world before USSR: 3 300 000 Jews lived in Poland in 1939. As a result in 1939, the German troops penetrated in the most Jewish populated country. Heinrich Himmler opened Auschwitz concentration camp in May 1940.

In addition to extermination made in concentration camps, the German “Einsatzgruppen” were squadrons following the German troops and in charge of slaughters in Poland and USSR. The victims of “Einsatgruppen” amounted   1.4 million. This was achieved directly or by the organization of Pogroms and with the support of regular German troops.  On 20th January 1942, a Conference was organized in “Wannsee” which decided of the implementation of the “Final Solution”, meaning a systematic extermination of all Jews mainly through the dedicated Camps.

From 1940 to 1945, 63% of the Jewish population of Europe was destroyed i.e. 6 000 000 people. 


XII – FRANCE FROM 1789 TO 1994

In 1789, approximately 50 000 Jews lived in France out of which 25 000 were in Alsace where many an-Semite riots occurred. All Jews became French Citizens in 1790 and 1792.

In 1845, Alphonse Toussenel, anti-Jewish Frenchman created a new definition of Jewish character: “An unproductive parasite, living from the substance and from the work of others”. He also created the slogan “War to Jews.”

The Newspaper titled “La Croix” (The Cross) was created in 1883 by the Christian Priests of the Assumption. In 1889“La Croix” presented itself in a sub-title, as the most anti-Jew newspaper of France. 

The anti-Semitism propaganda was increased by the recent coming in France of foreign Jewish refugees fleeing the Pogroms in Russian territories. From 1880 to 1914, 30 000 refugees arrived in France.

In 1886, the publication of the book: “La France juive” (The Jewish France) written by the extreme rightist, Edouard Drumont was very successful.  Drumont introduced the word anti-Semitism in France. His book gave an anti-Semitic view of Jews personification as illustrated by the following extract: “The Jews have this famous bent down nose, blinking eyes, tight teeth, salient ears, square nails, too long torso, round knees, very salient ankles, and the soft and smooth hand of the hypocrite and traitor. They often have an arm shorter than the other.”

The National anti-Semitic League of France, an extreme-right organization was created in 1889.

The daily anti-Semitic newspaper: « La libre parole » (the free expression) was created in 1892 by Drumont. 



At this time 70 000 Jews lived in France out of which 15 000 came from Alsace in 1870. As a matter of fact near half of Jews of Alsace were grateful to France for having given them the French citizenship and did not want to remain under German Authority after the defeat of Napoleon III.

Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish Captain of the French Army born in Alsace, was sentenced in 1894 by a military court to Life imprisonment under the accusation of espionage in favour of Germany on the basis of forged documents. The fact that he was Jew from Alsace made of him the perfect traitor for the anti-Semite French Military authorities. Lieutenant-Colonel Georges Picard who was appointed as Chief of Intelligence discovered in 1896 that the documents of the prosecution were forged. Authentic documents accused the Major Walin Estherazy. The General Staff sent Picard to Tunisia to prevent him to reopen the case. Despite the evident proofs provided by the defence, the Court acquitted Esterhazy on 10 January 1898 and condemned Alfred Dreyfus as a matter of principle and to save the honour of Army. Under the pressure of the brother of Captain Dreyfus, the famous novelist Emile Zola published his well known denunciation, in the form of an open letter to the President of the French Republic “J’accuse…” (I accuse…) in the newspaper “L’Aurore”.

Emile Zola accused the military Authorities of Justice denial and was then obliged to flee for a time in London. Zola faced alone the adverse public opinion including the Members of Parliament for whom a justice decision must not be questioned.

The right wing and the Christian Church declared that Dreyfus’ case was a conspiracy of Jews and Freemasons against France and French Army.

Anti-Semitic demonstrations were organised in the French cities and a Pogrom occurred in Algiers.

The French politician Maurice Barres made a popular declaration: “I believe Dreyfus is able to betray, I deduct it from his race”.

In 1899, the War Minister after having been hostile to Dreyfus discovered that Colonel Henri was the author of the forged documents against Dreyfus. Colonel Henri was arrested and committed suicide. Colonel Picard who knew the truth since 1896 was at last authorised to testify in Court and Estherazy fled to London.

The trial was again totally arranged to maintain the guiltiness of espionage of Dreyfus to please the General Staff and opponents of Dreyfus, but extenuating conditions were mentioned by the Court to enable the President of the French Republic to pardon Alfred Dreyfus and free him. Finally twelve years after the first trial and seven years after the second, French Supreme Court declared in 1906 that Alfred was Dreyfus fully innocent.

Dreyfus’ Affair showed at the eve of the twentieth century that Anti-Semitism was deeply rooted even in the country of the Human Rights and that Jews will never be accepted in Europe and consequently this event was the start of the modern Zionism.  

In 1908, Charles Maurras created the extreme right royalist organisation « Action Française » (French Action) whose corner stone was again anti-Semitism. According to this organisation Jews, Freemasons, Protestants and Foreigners formed an “Alien Party” inside France whose target was the destruction of the traditional and catholic France. Charles Maurras was particularly loved by the French citizens of Algeria, who elected him as Member of the French Parliament.

In 1939 the government closed the borders to prevent the German Jews to flee the Nazi regime.

In 1940 after its defeat, France was divided in two: one part under the direct German Authority and another part indirectly through Maréchal Pétain’s Authority.

Pétain was anti-Jews and decided personally to implement the first anti-Semite laws in October 1940: Many professional activities were forbidden to Jews and the foreign Jews were deported in Camps. In March 1941 Pétain created a special Authority for Jewish affairs in charge of the census of Jews, the spoliation of their assets and of the anti-Semite French propaganda. From March 1941 the French police started to arrest the Jews in the area under German occupation to deport them in the extermination camps and the foreign Jews of the non occupied area were remitted to the Germans.

In November 1942 France was entirely occupied by German troops and the French head of Police of Pétain, René Bousquet, was in charge of the arrests of Jews on the whole territory. 77 320 Jews out of 330 000 were arrested and deported to the death Camps.

From 1954 to 1956, Pierre Poujade created an organization of small traders’ defence, which also adopted the clichés of anti-Semitism: Pierre Poujade insulted the Jewish members of the Government when he declared: “By who are we governed? By people who dare not say their names (meaning Jews): Mendes-Portugal (allusion to the Sephardic Jewish origin of Pierre Mendès-France), married to a Jewish Egyptian woman, Salomon Hirsch Ollendorf called Granval and Ben Soussa called Soustelle. It is important to unmask them and to punch up their dirty heads”.

On 2d January 1956 the supporters of Poujade obtaine 50 seats at the Parliament out of which one for Jean-Marie Le Pen (The current leader of the Extreme Right Wing).

In 1967, General De Gaulle made an official allocution in which he utilized an old Cliché looking like the idea contained inThe "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and which might have stir up anti-Semitism: “The Jews are an Elite People, Sure of themselves and Domineering”.

In 1969, a medieval Rumour was spread in the city of Orleans where people were assumed to be educated and which demonstrated the resilience of the old Anti-Semitism. During many months the population of the city suspected the clothing stores owned by Jews to organize the kidnapping of women in the fitting rooms to sell them abroad. The rumour indicated at the beginning that 26 women were kidnapped and increased. The police reported that no women were kidnapped and was also suspected by the mob. Later the rumour amplified again indicating that a Sub-Marine ship came in the river Loire to embark the kidnapped women. This exaggeration killed the Rumour since Loire is about 1 meter deep in the area.

In 1994, France discovered that René Bousquet who was in charge of the deportation of French Jews to the death camps was a long date close friend of the President François Mitterrand.




The first anti-Semite major act was the dispersion, which took place two millennium ago. The wish to bring Judeo–Christian monotheism and moral to barbarian peoples in a marketable packaging suitable to them was the start of the Creation of a Church which totally lost its link with Jesus ‘Philosophy.

Church made a special “Doctrine”, became thirsty of temporal power and created the concept of God Murder and many similar others which took it far away from Monotheism and Jesus ‘beliefs and lethal for the Jews. Church built in this way the corner stone of Anti-Semitism. With their numerous additives, the Bishops in their multiple Councils made of the Church a tool of violence, Hatred, and intolerance.

The attempt of return to Christianity by Reform was mostly unsatisfactory but is partly the reason, which made of USA a shelter for the Jews.

The strict respect of Monotheismby Islam explained its greater tolerance towards Judaism as compared to Church’s Countries. In Spain before the Reconquista, the cooperation of Islam and Judaism permitted to bring a bright contribution to the whole civilization.

Church anti-Semitism kept the Jews isolated with a subsidiary and submissive life in the tradition of the homeless wanderer Jew and which was the role they had to play on earth according to Saint Augustine.

This isolation and the traditional contempt paved the way of the new anti-Semitism of 19th and 20th centuries based on racist pseudo-scientific theories, when the new enlightened democratic regimes broke the isolation of Jews from the rest of the Society.

Quickly Jews integrated the new freed societies and the success of few of them was considered as unacceptable for those who still considered them as second rank citizens. Pathologic jealousy and long life hatred of Jews were expected to unify people around the new concept of Nationalism and Race purity in major European countries.

The Church’s doctrine continued to play a part in these new currents by benevolent neutrality and by the good conscience racists may build on the basis of the Church doctrine. For example Hitler wrote in “Mein Kampf” :”Nature takes revenge when we transgress its commandments, so I think to act in the spirit of the Almighty, our creator, because in defending myself against the Jew, I fight to defend the Lord's work.”

Church’s doctrine gave also good conscience to those who made slaughters before the Racist theories, always in the name of the pagan concept of God-Murder. Massacres were a continuum before the effects of Racist theories, which led the League Of Nations (LON) to request in 1920 the creation of a Shelter for the Jews far from Europe.

From 1940 to 1945, six millions of Christs were crucified in name of Racist theories and with neutrality or active participations of populations used to hatred of Jews spread by the Church. During these events Church kept benevolent neutrality easing the Nazi massacres since Church did not at least request an examination of conscience. 63% of the Jewish European population was destroyed.

In 1939, 59% of the world Jewish population lived in Europe but if we include the two million of Russians who fled to America from 1881 to 1914, we may say that usually 70% of the Jewish population used to live in Europe and was clearly a part of the European population.

In 2005 this figure decreased dramatically from 70% to 12% as a result of the Holocaust and of the vast immigration to Israel and America. This figure shows the great victory of European anti-Semitism. Even the allies did not give the deserver importance to the information they received on the Holocaust in progress.

The deplorable History of Church seems to have led Church to make an attempt to discover Christianity from 1962 to 1965 in the frame of the Council Vatican 2: The crucifixion of 6 million of Christs were necessary in order that the Roman Church declared in 1965 in the Encyclical “Nostra Aetate” that the hated Jews became “the beloved brothers” and that the death of Jesus was not the fault of “all” the Jews of Judea and was not the fault of the Jews of today. Despite these good words, the Holy See has accepted the UNO decision of 1947 regarding Israel only in 1993 (near half a century later).

The Encyclical of 1965 came too late and the Church did not cancel the Councils which brought it far away from Christianity.

Church remains intolerant regarding major social current issues e.g. fight against HIV, contraception, abortions, homosexuality and do not want to accept that many priests become pedophile because of the celibacy imposed to them. The lax position of Holy See regarding the prophylactic fight against HIV is criminal since it may involve the death of many people especially in Africa if innocent believers take it into consideration.Consequently the Church doctrine is progressively disappearing from western countries as a result of improved Education and information.

The advanced social Democracies took the best of Jesus’ Philosophy on the contrary of the Church, which demonstrates that we need not theology or any kind of religions to apply good ideas.

We may hope that Europe, which has now overcome the issues of national prerogatives generating conflicts for the benefit of Union, has acquired sufficiently strong and resilient Ethics.

The Charter of Fundamental Rights is a good start subject to a strict respect of it. Europe must give way to tolerance after its excesses; it must declare outlaw all political parties based on xenophobia; those parties are today bursting everywhere among European members.