THE ORIGIN AND FUTURE OF WORSHIPS, RELIGIONS, GODS AND DIVINE
THE ORIGIN AND FUTURE OF WORSHIPS, RELIGIONS, GODS AND DIVINE
Didier Bertin – 25 January 2018
I-Creation of the universe, of the earth, origin of life
Our universe was created by the Big Bang about 14 billion years ago, during which various nuclear fusions, including hydrogen, allowed the creation of helium and consequently of carbon and oxygen. Nuclear fusion linked to the rotation and gravitation phenomena of a solar nebula resulted in contraction generating the sun and collisions of debris from the solar nebula created protoplanets. The formation of the earth began 4.7 billion years ago. The collision of the earth with multiple asteroids caused thermal shocks and brought iron and nickel to the center of the planet forming the nucleus with magnetic properties and constituting a protective field. The earth was then a magmatic ocean whose degassing formed the atmosphere. Earth has entered a cooling process that created 4.2 billion years ago, the earth's crust and oceans.
Elements such as water, methane, hydrogen have created organic molecules producing cells capable of replication by RNA replaced by DNA that has generated the life. The oldest cell fossils are 3.5 billion years old. Multicellular organisms were formed such as bacteria which used oxygen (first form of breathing).
550 million years ago the first vertebrate living creatures were the fish that are the ancestors of all vertebrates with a skull protecting a primitive brain.
An ozone layer of oxygen has allowed the development of life out of water by protecting it from ultraviolet solar radiation.
II- Evolution of life and emergence of human being
One of the forms of evolution of fish (first vertebrate) was the tetrapod capable of living on land by developing lungs, paws and neck. From the tetrapod appeared then reptiles and especially mammalian reptiles from which are derived mammals including primates. Primates undergo a diversified evolution from the tertiary era, especially with great apes. The human lineage separated from the great apes (especially chimpanzees) only 5 million years ago, which is nothing compared to the appearance of fish 550 million years ago. The evolution is then marked by the bifurcation of the hominines in Hominins (humans) and Panines (chimpanzees). For contextual reasons the man's ape ancestor developed bipedalism and thus released his hands with the thumb opposable to the fingers (clamp) to act with them independently and manipulate. Bipedalism has also been favorable to the development of the brain mass allowing a more complex intelligence and the release of the larynx allowing the development of language.
Different types of human beings appeared but became extinct and only the Homo sapiens (or modern man) whose intelligence would have been the most extensive persisted. However it is estimated the possibility of miscegenation of the order of 1 to 4% with the extinct human species. Homo sapiens only appeared 195 000 years ago, which is negligible compared to the age of the human lineage of 5 million years.
Man is an animal with particular aspects that allowed him to build, to create, to develop the understanding of science and to benefit from it. These particular aspects led him to no longer consider himself an animal. This differentiation is justified by the control of nature and technical progress, but also when man's behavior is worse than that of an animal that merely hunts prey for food.
By observing human beings during the sole twentieth and twenty-first centuries, we notice a destructive behavior that sometimes places them at a lower rank than that of the animal in terms of savagery.
The First World War killed 18.6 million people and the second more than 60 million. During these two centuries (as it still continues today in Burma) the greatest exterminations of humans by humans took place and this e.g. for questions related to the origins of the victims who did not fit the psychotic ideology of their exterminators. The reference in horror and the industrialization of death has been the Holocaust. While it was thought that men had learned from it, genocidal exterminations continued on various continents.
In order to illustrate the peculiarity of human nature we would like to cite the example of Gardelegen in April 1945 in Germany. While the German territory was practically occupied by Russians and Americans, the surviving SS continued to slaughter thousands of innocent by only taste of the murder that the animals do not know. In a few years the environment has turned these men into psychopaths; psychopathy is therefore a human potentiality that could be the result of a given environment at a specific moment (see Farrington's studies on psychopathy and the environment).
In Ukraine in 1933 during the great famine called "Holodomor" due to the decision of the USSR to collectivize agriculture and which caused three million deaths, cannibalism spread and some parents ate their children. Official placards were displayed to remind people that it was immoral to eat their children; one would have thought that the human being would have preferred to let himself die rather than arrive at these excesses, but this is not always the case.
"Thus human beings can be far more savage than any animal," and their beliefs in imaginary and diverse gods have been of no help to prevent these horrible attitudes.
III-The recourse of "disoriented" human being to Cults, Religions including the creation of the Divine
1-The divine: source of hope for disoriented human beings
Bipedalism has allowed humans to develop a brain that has permitted them to become aware of their surroundings and of the threats they might suffer, but also to communicate and socialize. In the beginning Homo sapiens was a weak being in front of many other living beings (animals or other human beings) and also in front of natural phenomena whose death he did not understand.
Because of his limits and ignorance, the human being simply divinized directly or indirectly the natural elements that threatened him by devoting them worships including prayers, incantations, ritual dances and offering sacrifices in expectation of clemency. A sacrifice consists of depriving oneself of goods given as offerings or killing animals or even human beings in order to prove to the gods or equivalent the great devotion of human beings men to them. In return for these worships human beings hoped for the benevolence of the deities.
The perception of reality by Homo sapiens:
All the senses are cerebral interpretations of human being (in fine he see, feel and hear with his brain); the psychic effects, the emotions, the imaginary to reconstitute what we ignore on the basis of what we know can distort the interpretation of reality and his perception and may incite the development of mythologies and religions. E.g. today eyewitnesses are no longer considered as totally safe and must be crossed with other considerations.
An educated person should have a more precise vision than a boor who will tend to use more imagination and emotions to see what he thinks he perceives.
Thus many natural phenomena were perceived as supernatural and gods were created to explain them and had thus anthropomorphic or animal appearances since the imagination of human being is based on what he already knows.
If human being knowledge is still limited, it has increased exponentially allowing better discernment and especially the adoption of rationalistic methods to be applied to what is new reducing then the influence of emotions. In a framework of rigorous reasoning the imagination can also be helpful for creation and discoveries.
As knowledge increases, the importance of gods and religions that are synonymous of the compensation of ignorance diminishes among the most educated populations.
The atheist population increases in absolute numbers but remains limited in relative numbers taking into account the significant growth among the poorest and less educated populations therefore most open to religions and divine. In year 0 the world population was 170 million inhabitants to reach 7.6 billion in 2017.
Animism and related worship consist in giving a spirit (animus) to objects of all kinds, natural phenomena (wind, sun, volcanoes ...) and to evil or protective geniuses.
These geniuses of human origin (for example the spirit of the dead) or animal or other, may have, according to the believers, effects on the real. Religions are adapted to the needs of their believers since they are themselves their creators.
There are many religions for hunter-gatherers or for agro-pastoralists and others, polytheists or monotheists. The number of religions that have existed is uncountable but today the main religions with at least 3 million believers are:
Christianity: 2,262 million - 29.8% of the world's population
Islam: 1 552 million - 20.4% of the world's population
Hinduism: 949 million - 12.5% ??of the world's population
Buddhism: 495 million -6.5% of the world's population
Chinese religions: 435 million - 5.7% of the world's population
Ethnic religions: 243 million - 3.2% of the world's population
New movements: 63 million - 0.8% of the world's population
Sikhism: 24 million - 0.3% of the world's population
Judaism: 14 million - 0.2% of the world's population
Spiritism: 14 million - 0.2% of the world's population
Taoism: 8 million - 0.1% of the world's population
Confucianism: 8 million - 0.1% of the world's population
Baha’ism: 7 million - 0.1% of the world's population
Jainism: 5 million - 0.1% of the world's population
Shintoism: 3 million - less than 1% of the world's population
5.647 billion People claim to belong to a religion on a world population in 2017 of 7.6 billion. Thus the non-believers are therefore about 2 billion people (25.6% of the world population).
Among the 5,647 million believers a substantial number claim a religion that they practice only very little or not at all, especially among Christians and as a result the first religion in the world is the absence of religion.
At the origin of religions there is the psychic necessity of believing that an almighty or benevolent being can lighten the burden of his believers; this only human need marks the limit of the capacity of comprehension of the world since it implies the abandonment of the brain gain of bipedal origin that is to say of the intellectual logic and rigor in favor of the faith which is only a simple unfounded conviction adopted against all logic.
Faith thus opens the door to all sorts of beliefs since in this case the rational is set aside. Human beings call gods, divine beings or sometimes gurus, other beings whom they think they can obtain without any logic, clemency, advantage, and reduction of the unleashing of natural elements or even release of the anger of others with which they do not share opinions.
These human creations were often accompanied by mythologies, doctrines and at best philosophies. Only Buddhism does not create a god properly speaking.
Each god may have a more or less important role or place in the hierarchy and there existed for example more than 200 Egyptian gods, more than 50 Greek gods and their Roman equivalents and currently more than 250 Hindu deities. The gods create jobs and resources for the professionals who serve them (priests or gurus).
The gods have different sizes and can sometimes be transportable. The Pharaoh Akhenaton wanted to restrict the deities to the only sun (Aton) which thus represented a kind of monotheism; this new religion had given rise to the revolt of the clergy living materially from the worship of the many other gods and who thus found themselves without jobs and resources. At his death the traces of his reign deemed heretical by the priests were erased.
2-The creation of the concept of soul as a victory over death
At death we can only see that human being and what made his personality disappear. The corpse is no more than an object in decomposition that is customary to bury or burn it to no longer be confronted with the image of the end of life and its nauseating putrefaction. So life stops and in order to contain human despair in the face of nothingness, religions created the notion of eternal life in another world or by reincarnation in the same world through the soul. The body being destroyed religion replaces it with the soul which will not undergo the decay of the corpse, but which is neither the body, nor the intellect, nor the personality of the deceased.
The soul is therefore an empty concept whose sole purpose is to give believers a hope of eternal life and is therefore of victory over death. In this race for the imagination and eternity, the human being makes of himself a kind of God by inventing eternity, which is the monopoly of Gods, and which thus is a mixture of concepts (human beings and gods). The concept of soul was adopted by Christians at the Council of Carthage in the year 418.
An individual is the product of his intellect and his person confronted with his environment. The observation of people in the final stages of Alzheimer's neurodegenerative disease: amnesia of recent and old facts, loss of the ability to have an abstract thought, aphasia, apraxia and agnosia, reflects the emptiness of the concept of soul.
3-The sky - the heavens
The sky has for a long time represented the Kingdom of the gods (as the Indo-European tradition suggests), while the worst was to be under the earth and as e.g. the volcanic eruptions could suggest it. The sky belongs to the polytheistic and monotheistic mythologies of humanity and yet it is only the extent visible above the ground from the surface of the earth.
The color of the sky is due to solar radiation which undergoes refractions due to the earth's atmosphere. Our better knowledge of space normally ends human mythologies concerning the sky, although religions react by pretending now that the heavens are not precisely the sky, despite their abundant representations.
The word god which comes from Latin and has an Indo-European root: "dei" which means "to shine" and is used to designate the shining sky as divinity or place of celestial divinities. Zeus has the same root. Gott and God also come from Indo-European language with the meaning of invocation and the Slavic word Bog (god) also comes from the Indo-European bhag.
The simplistic idea of ??sky or heavens as the place of residence of God and good souls is perceptible by the use of expressions ascending to heaven, ascension or by the representation of angels sent from God and provided with wings to fly. Cherubim (winged small angels) were also represented on the Ark of the Covenant. Beyond 100 km altitude begins the interstellar void in which wings are useless. But the men who saw heaven as the Kingdom of God had no idea at that time about the nature of the atmosphere.
IV-FROM POLYTHEISM TO MONOTHEISM
Rationalism has always been an obstacle for religions, and monotheism is in principle a passage to a more intellectualized form of the divine nature. Abram then called Abraham deduced that the idols built by his own father could not have any particular power since his father did not have any. After destroying these idols he had the idea of ??a unique, intangible and ineffable power that was the first God of a monotheistic religion.
Abraham created monotheism five centuries before the failed attempt of Akhenaton who had chosen for God an object: the sun far from the intangibility of the God of Abraham. The God of Abraham has no name but is designated by the declination of the verb "to be" in Hebrew and this is consistent with his revelation to Moses on Mount Sinai.
By covenant a land was promised to Abraham for his offspring after a period of slavery.
The religion of the descendants of Abraham, the people of Israel, belongs to the realm of intangibility and addresses the part of the brain that manages the virtual realm, and is not meant to make disciples.
The circumcision sought by Abraham as a covenant with God is also discouraging for those who would like to join his religion. The religion of Abraham seems to address an elite but this will not prevent some of his descendants to be sometimes influenced by idolatry.
Circumcision is considered today as a way of curbing the transmission of AIDS and Papillomavirus infection. A circumcision campaign currently being conducted has involved more than 15 million people in East Africa.
After a long period of slavery in Egypt the people of Israel had to lose their habit taken in captivity and adopt legislative rules that would guarantee morality and public order. The 40-year exodus symbolizes the need to wait for a new generation that would be a free people who have not known slavery and are ready to comply with the new rules and laws in order to enter the Promised Land. However, it is surprising that the omnipresent and intangible God of Abraham must elect a particular place to reveal himself and his law; we may think that it was rather the choice of Moses to isolate himself and think.
There is an iconography although in principle prohibited by Judaism that materializes the presence of God above the Ark of Covenant and in the Temple by a kind of smoke.
David's desire for greatness, and finally that of Solomon, led them to plan to build and then build a Temple in which priests would make sacrifices and receive offerings. This project was inspired in our opinion from Egyptian or Greek polytheistic temples. After a beginning of monotheistic correctness Solomon would have drifted away under the influence of other currents. Later the Sadducees guardians of the temple will be denounced by the Essenes for their practices within the Temple.
While the Tana'h (Bible) forms a solid foundation for Jewish History and traditions, commentaries and oral religious tradition have frozen Judaism at the various times at which they were made. The famous 613 commandments (Mitsvot) for example are very much influences by the period of antiquity and have no meaning today when it comes to the Temple, the Priests, the Offerings to the Temple (Korbanot), the King, the slaves and refer to outdated justice in the case of bastards, rapes, homosexuals, conjugal relationships; they also give too much emphasis to details especially on the prohibitions on sexual intercourse of all kinds that shock common sense today because it gives the idea of ??a backward society. Fortunately, the laws of modern states make it no longer necessary to refer to them.
However, many people today are distancing themselves from the rigid and aged aspects of religion. During the two thousand years spent in the Diaspora the Jews made a substantial contribution to Western civilization despite the development of anti-Semitism that is an easy escape from the anger and jealousy of other peoples.
a- life after death
Unlike many religions, the emphasis is mostly placed in Judaism on earthly life and after death the immortal souls both just and unjust go like shadows in the Sheol without comfort as a sort of nothingness or Greek Hades which is not a paradise. Some Jewish currents have taken the initiatives of interpretations that move away from the texts.
There were four main streams in Judaism: (i) the Sadducees (caste priests) who were not open to the unwritten tradition and did not believe in a life after death, (ii) the Pharisees who added to the Bible an oral tradition and believed in a life after the death. The other two main currents were those of the (iii) Essenes (supporters of asceticism and opposed to the practice of Sadducees) and (iv) Qana'im (Zealots in Greek) uncompromising and supporters of the war against the Romans.
Different streams of Judaism have made various interpretations but the Bible gives little room for the question of life after death. Judaism does not seek to proselytize and does not promise an extraordinary life after death.
b- The Temple
We pointed out how a temple did not correspond to the idiosyncrasy of the religion of Abraham and Israel because it was in opposition to the spirit of temple builders who wanted by this way to worship and house their multiple gods. Without Temple, Judaism has reconciled itself to the more rigorous initial monotheism in the Diaspora.
The remoteness of the land of Israel, however, has given rise to developments of sectarian movements of withdrawal on oneself from ultra-Orthodox like the Hasidim (Eastern Europe) venerating their Masters like Gurus.
They tended to lock themselves into rules restricting together a necessary evolution and hermeneutic interpretations in a closed circle leading to esoteric mysticism far from the spirit of Abraham and Israel.
One might think that this behavior was a way to escape the weight of exile in an obsessively hostile environment and to form a bulwark to support exile. The ultra-Orthodox are called H'aredim (?????) and those living currently in Israel refuse to integrate into normal civilian life.
Whenever possible, the most open Jews became integrated into the societies in which they lived and brought to civilization a share out of all proportion to their number.
d- Exterminations and expulsions in Europe - Escape to the New World and Israel's Renaissance
After two millennia of stay in Europe the Jewish people have been either exterminated or driven out, and it can be said roughly that the Jewish people now live for a little more than half in Israel, and most of the rest in the United States of America (the residual Jewish community in Europe is very small). In these two countries, many Jews are far removed from the strict religion and very attached to Jewish identity built on traditional, historical and national bases that justifies by common sense that indivisible Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
For issues related to the Israeli electoral system ultra-religious parties have imposed themselves in Israel and rigidify Judaism in a form that no longer suits most Jews in both Israel and the United States. The electoral mode in Israel leads to the fact that the secular parties that represent the electoral majority may not form a governmental majority and must be burdened with the blackmail of small ultra religious parties.
The ultra-religious people needed to form a government majority impose conditions that go far beyond what they represent in reality and in order to avoid this blackmail the electoral system should be revised.
e-The burden of the Ultra religious for Israel
The ultra-religious should no longer be able to go against the current progress desired by the majority of the population by the way of managing civil affairs especially those concerning marriage, divorce and the transmission of Judaism.
A modern state should apply the principle of separation between civil and religious affairs. The interference of religious in civil life is at the expense of the majority of citizens. Failure to recognize civil marriage implies a religious divorce (guet ?? ) that cannot be obtained without the consent of the husband as a form of repudiation. Religious courts made up of men tend to leave situations to rot since they are not in favor of divorce.
Judaism is transmitted by the mother and this is logical for those who think that a woman is unreliable and that we never know who the real father is but it seems unacceptable whatever the reasons given to cover this mentality. Moreover, the evolution of genetics means that a woman can give birth to a child who is not her, as in the case of surrogate mothers or mothers who carry an egg that is not their own (assisted fertilization). In modern world the transmission of Judaism should depend on the choice of parents.
Israeli law is much more flexible with respect to nationality since it had a duty to welcome those who had their lives threatened because they were designated as Jewish by the Nuremberg Nazi laws (one Jewish grandparent). This rule remains applicable.
The rules of liberal majority synagogues in the United States are much more open than those of the Orthodox, which prevents the disappearance of Jews due to the facts that a large number of Jews marry now non-Jewish people, particularly in the United States.
Ultra religious people are a burden to Israel and benefit from his advantages despite they refuse social integration and military conscription. The problem of the allegedly excessive numbers of soldiers in the army can be regulated by the duration of military service and not by the questioning conscription.
Generalized conscription would allow students of ultra-religious schools (Yeshivot) to complete their secular studies integrate into society, work and move away from their families in which they are held as hostages.
The Roman occupation was felt as particularly painful by the people of Israel in search of a hope of liberation even messianic, and so many people improvised themselves as preachers.
One of them is John Cohen (son of a priest of the temple) called John the Baptist who recommended the purification by the water of the Jordan river perhaps in addition to the action of the priests. Thus Jesus, who will become a preacher, was baptized by John in the Jordan River. It must be noted that the purification by water exists in Judaism (Mikveh).
The preacher Jesus has developed a philosophy that seems to be inspired by that of the Essenes or at least shares with it many common points. The Essenes oppose the behavior of Sadducees, priests of the temple and recommend a life of asceticism.
The Priests were criticized by many Jews, including the Essenes and followers of Jesus, to divert Judaism from its original purity. Jesus taught how to be a better Jew by advocating tolerance and forgiveness that would lead to salvation in the Kingdom of God. Although Jesus wants to stay within the framework of Judaism this idea of ??salvation in the Kingdom of God does not exist in Judaism.
The priests saw him as a competitor capable of creating disorder among a people in search of hope and let the Roman occupiers decide his fate. Other Jews saw in Jesus the possibility of solidarity against the Roman occupiers.
The religion of Jesus was Judaism and its teaching was for Jews. Judaism was a necessary passage to become a follower of Jesus. After his death, his brother and disciple James (Yacov) (whom Church calls cousin to preserve the myth of the virginity of their mother Marie) advocated the strict respect of the rules of Judaism. Other disciples decided after the death of Jesus to transform his philosophy into a religion aiming to develop a large proselytism at the price of its distorting.
Paul who had never known Jesus decided to transform his philosophy into a hyper-simplified and anthropomorphized Judaism by emphasizing the divine role of Jesus in order to be more attractive to the Gentiles. The pagans could not indeed be open to a religion too abstract, too restrictive by many rules including circumcision and with a God they can even not see. God was thus anthropomorphized “in practice” with the visible form of that of Jesus represented on icons and statues.
Many Christians give more importance to the image of Jesus than to God who remains abstract and thus almost not existing.
As a matter of fact in many under-developed Christian countries in the field of education the reference to God is seen as the image of Jesus. Moreover, the promise of a life after death in a marvelous paradise in the Kingdom of God, which the Jews do not offer is a strong argument in terms of proselytism.
a-Jesus and women
Jesus had very close relations with the two sisters of Lazarus Martha, and Mary in Bethany near Jerusalem and with Mary Magdalene in Magdala in Galilee also called the sinner, which demonstrated his humanity. The Bible describes affectionate gestures of these two Mary towards Jesus but the church thinks that they were only one woman called by a different name according to the place where she was because probably the Church does not do not like multiple female relationships of any kind. In practice this seems doubtful because the trip from Magdala to Bethany is about 150 km to walk or to be made on donkey on the ways of this time.
b- Life after death
After death the righteous souls go to Paradise that is therefore a concept absent from Judaism. This heavenly paradise is in the image of earthly paradise (Garden of Eden). Paradise is described as a wonderful place where one finds the perfect happiness with new bodies adapted to the celestial life. It is the home of God, angels and those who died as good Christians. There will be no more suffering, sickness, sins and the activity will be to praise and worship God. Unjust souls will go to Hell to be punished.
c- The lack of loyalty and honesty of the Church towards Jesus
The problem of Church is its lack of loyalty and honesty towards Jesus since Christianity was the fruit of haggling and rough interpretations that took place years and centuries after his death.
It should be noted that the gospels were written forty years after the death of Jesus. Jesus is often called Jesus Christ (which means "anointed" in Greek) because he would have been anointed (pouring oil on his head) like kings, people consecrated to God and the Messiah.
In order to be the Messiah Jesus had to be descendant of King David and receive the anointing. To continue in the lineage of King David, Jesus was thus born in Bethlehem, the birthplace of King David despite he was most probably born in Nazareth.
Jesus is the son of Mary and Joseph, but this human nature was not retained and it was preferred that Mary be a virgin and Jesus be the son of God. This arrangement seems to have been inspired by the mythology of Zarathustra or Helen and Pollux. It was only at the Council of Nicaea in 325 that it was decided that Jesus was the son of God.
At the Council of Constantinople in 381, the concept of the trinity was adopted "God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Spirit". The divinity of Jesus was confirmed and the concept of the Holy Spirit was adopted. The Holy Spirit according to the Christians lives neither in the father nor in the Son and consequently it became necessary to consider the three to have a complete divinity.
At the Council of Ephesus in 431, Mary was named Mother of God. Thus the notion of divinity was completely dispersed on the father, the son, the Holy Spirit and the mother and from this council it is difficult to speak of strict monotheism with regard to Christianity and this represents a clear break with the Judaism of Jesus.
To reconcile the irreconcilable one uses concepts that contradict each other and are empty like the individuality and the consubstantiality of the elements of the trinity.
At the Council of Chalcedon in 451, it was declared that Christ was both God and Human being.
At the Council of Nicaea in 787, it was made clear that we should adore the characters of the icons and not the Icons themselves and we condemned the iconoclasts. It goes without saying that simple believers will not bother with such subtleties and will adore the icons as can be seen especially in the Orthodox Churches.
d -The representation of Jesus
Always for proselytizing purposes Jesus was very represented with the traits of the people the Church wanted to convert, especially as a handsome man of rather Scandinavian type with long blond hair and blue eyes while he was a Jew of Galilee and as a result Semitic brown, with dark eyes, short black hair (current at the time probably because of weather).
The Church developed anti-Semitism initially due to the fact that the majority of the Jewish people had not adopted Christianity as an indispensable complement to the Judaism and that the priests of the Temple had delivered Jesus to the Romans. This anti-Semitism transpires even in the representation of most of the characters of the Bible including Jesus. Many symbols represented Christianity but the Church has preferred the Cross which is a Roman torture instrument and Jesus crucified. These symbols are not representative of Christian philosophy but encourage retaliation against Jews designated by the Church as responsible for Jesus ‘crucifixion until Vatican II Council. As a matter of facts after the Holocaust it was difficult to continue officially in the way of retaliation.
e-The hidden texts of the Church
All of the Christian Churches have decided to make a new Bible while recognizing as part of it the Jewish Bible (Tana'h), based on only four Gospels (those of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) while there are 76 other Christian texts that the Church has decided to hide (apocryphal) including 13 other Gospels. It is only today that researchers have decided to look into the hidden texts as well.
f- Special case of the Gospel of Judas (hidden text)
In this Gospel Judas appears to be the closest disciple of Jesus who gave him the mission to help him to sacrifice his carnal envelope. The alleged betrayal of Judas had worsened the lot of Jews consequences because the name Judas was assimilated to the whole Jewish people considered all as traitors.
g- Jesus and Talpiot's tomb in Jerusalem
In 1980, near a building in Talpiot (district of Jerusalem) a vault was discovered including five ossuaries dating from the second Temple: that of Jesus son of Joseph, that of Mary, that of Joseph, that of Judas son of Jesus, that of another Mary and that of Matthew. For those who think that it is the tomb of Jesus and his family, it calls into question his resurrection, his divine character and seems to show that he would have had a normal family life. Others claim that if it were Jesus' tomb, it should be in Galilee according to tradition and yet the Bible mentions a tomb in Jerusalem and James the brother of Jesus also Galilean was also buried in Jerusalem. Finally, it was said that many people at that time were called Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and Judas... and that it was a coincidental set of homonyms in the same place. I was decided to seal this tomb with a concrete slab and not try to question Christianity as it has become. These facts, if they are true, would not put into question the philosophy of Jesus.
Thus, as time has passed since the death of Jesus, the Christian authorities have transformed a monotheistic religion into a polytheistic religion. The Church comes out of this evidence only by calling the trinity "a mystery."
Islam, which means submission to God, advocates a return to strict and absolute monotheism, unlike Christianity. Islam is based on a new text, the Qur'an, revealed until 632 to the prophet of this new religion, Mohammed. Most of the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula being animist, their conversion towards Monotheism was seen as a necessary progress. Islam was inspired by Judaism and Christianity, but in finedeveloped a very different religion through the Qur'an and Sunnah.
Islam seemed to be initially conceived for the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula because of the Arabic language in which the Qur'an is to be read and problems raised concerning the region of Mecca and Medina.
In fact, Islam, like Christianity, is proselyte despite the Arabic language, while Christianity adopted Latin to spread better in the West but quickly spread to other continents by the holy war because according to Islam the salvation of the peoples of the Bible (Jews and Christians) can only be done by conversion to Islam.
Muslims are bound by five fundamental obligations: (i) the declaration of faith, (ii) five prayers a day, (iii) the fasting of Ramadan, (iv) almsgiving to the needy, and (v) pilgrimage in Mecca. The obligations of Muslims are therefore simple and clear and promote proselytism.
The various verses of the Qur'an condemning Jews and Christians (unbelievers) have undoubtedly been the nerve of the holy war that has allowed a rapid geographical expansion of Islam in the West.
Jews are the object of particular hatred because of the refusal of the three Jewish tribes of Medina (named then Yathrib) to recognize Muhammad as a prophet: the Banu Qaynuqa and the Banu Nadir were expelled and the Banu Qurayza men were killed and their families were enslaved.
Here are two examples of this vehemence in the Qur'an:
Surah 4 Verse 56, "... We will burn in the fire those who do not believe in the Qur'an ..." - Surah 5 Verse 51), "... Do not take for allies the Jews and the Christians, they are allied with each other ...". - Surah 5: Verse 82. "... You will certainly find that Jews and associates are the fiercest enemies of believers. And you will certainly find that the most willing to love believers are those who say “we are Christians ...”
Life after death
Hereunder are some extracts for examples:
Qur'an: Surah 52 - Verse 15: Heaven and Hell: "There will be streams of never-smelly water, streams of unalterable milk, streams of delicious wine, streams of honey and fruits of all kinds; in hell the others will go on in the fire and drink boiling water that will tear their bowels. –“Verse 19,..As a reward for what you did, eat and drink peacefully”- "Verse 20," Leaning on tidy beds, we will make them marry Houris (*) with large black eyes - "Verse 22," We will provide them abundantly with fruits and meats. "
(*)Houris are women of great beauty who are eternally young and virgins.
Islam is therefore a return to pure monotheism as opposed to Christianity. It is however very intolerant towards the religions of the Bible (Judaism and Christianity). With regard to life after death, which is a negligible element in Judaism, meanwhile Islam retains the Christian paradise but gave it a material aspect instead of simply a spiritual dimension. For Islam Paradise guarantees a happiness of the senses far greater than that which can be expected in earthly life and this is very attractive for the needy. This paradise may encourage people to give their lives in the name of God in order to live in the sky a better earthy life as we can notice today with the suicide attacks. Outside the Houris women are not mentioned as possible recipients of this paradise.
Moreover, the rigorous monotheism of Islam can call into question Human Rights since privileges or granting privileges is the sole domain of God. Some Muslims who live in Democracies may not feel bound by laws made by Human beings for Human beings.
V- FROM MONOTHEISM TO ATHEISM
1-The predominance of Human Rights in modern countries
The sciences have not given us all the answers but have taught us to apply the most appropriate mode of questioning to progress, to measure the extent of our ignorance, to reduce it and to increase the limits of our perception.
Naming “God” what we do not understand is no longer an acceptable attitude at our level of techno-scientific civilization; this behavior corresponds to the policy of the ostrich. Indeed, to be satisfied with myths, free convictions, which we call faith, is a renouncement to face challenges that can be overcome by a long process of methodical research that will guide us through the reason on the way of the answers if not immediately to the answers otherwise we will return to intellectual underdevelopment. We must therefore continue to demystify the gods as Abraham has demystified idols.
The current religions are usually always close to the ancient religions and when they evolve towards the abstract (monotheism) one tries to bring them back to a crypto-polytheism as the Church did to put itself at the level of its flock. However, progress and teaching enable the flock to surpass the level of what the Church brought to them and then they gradually lose interest for religions.
Religions have been able to play a positive role for Human beings to fear the unfortunate consequences of their immoral behavior, but the moral sense of Religions was too approximate and time-bound; it is now up to States to fulfill this role and to make citizens fear the consequences of immoral behavior through laws and the judicial system.
States like religions have the weakness of the Human beings who lead them and to overcome this hurdle, Democracy and Human Rights must be institutionalized as the foundation of States.
By contrast, religions constitute a danger for Human Rights because they place themselves and their gods above Human beings.
In religions, the human condition is put in competition with God and they often offer a better life only after death when human beings do not exist anymore, which is paradoxical and is thus limited to the field of imagination. It should be noted, however, that only Judaism among the three monotheisms does not offer a better life after death with Sheol and consequently puts the accent on life on earth.
On 3 November 1789 the Declaration of the Rights of Human being and Citizen was promulgated in France with a Universalist and legal philosophical scope. In 1948, René Cassin has obtained that UN adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
On 7 December 2000 the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union was adopted and goes beyond the Declaration of Human Rights, including the right to education, work, and the right of the disabled people, children, and the elderly. The Charter also provides for the right to strike, protection against unjustified dismissals, the right to social security, social assistance and health protection, as well as the right to good administration and fair justice.
This text is a progress but it is applied de facto only to the initiative of each of the Member States, that is to say as little as possible by those who need it most.
2-What can be done with religions?
The mythology of the divine can no longer suit today as it suited ancient peoples who lacked of knowledge, method and a global vision of the world and universe. The divine was the last recourse to face adverse natural phenomena and events that the vulnerable Human being was not able to understand.
The divine corresponds to an imaginary compensation by man of his intellectual limits and knowledge of the moment, which change as they grow.
Thus in the developed countries there is a substantial growth in so-called "said" or "unsaid" atheism, and one may think that soon the divine will be considered as a belief as folkloric as the ancient mythologies.
Churches with their sacred architecture, iconography and celestial music are worthy of ancient religions with in addition a dispersion of the representation of God and a sacrificial altar. The Eucharist is indeed not the symbol of the sacrifice of Jesus as most believers think but "is" this sacrifice itself reproduced by transsubstantion (kind of magical effect).
The priest thus realizes a miracle in the framework of a divine mission that the Church gives itself. Catholic priests think they are equivalent to the priests of the Temple of Jerusalem and even more pretend to reproduce the Eucharist in its reality, it is understandable that these men who have such “superhuman” powers must remain “singles” with all the risks of sexual deviations that implies. When Catholicism will become humble in accepting that the Eucharist is symbolic, that priests are simple pastors and that the churches are no more sacred places as the Temple of Jerusalem, then it will return to the path of its founder.
In the past Jews were killed because it was said that they broke the sacred host and the blood of Jesus would had sprung from it. However, it must be noted that the evangelists attribute only a symbolic character to the Eucharist and their temples are not sacred places unlike churches or like synagogues.
Many churches are deserted today in developed countries because they no longer correspond to the needs of modern Human beings. We have taken the example of the Church, but in all religions ancient and mythological beliefs still persist.
The fear of Muslims to see Jews praying on the Temple Mount may suggest that they truly believe they could influence the judgment of God which is meaningless. The vow to rebuild a temple in Jerusalem is also not suitable for the two-thousand-year-old evolution of Judaism unless it is built as a museum or in a museum and not as a place of worship with Priests. A temple as a place of worship would give Judaism a similar structure to that of ancient religions far from a rigorous monotheism strengthened in the Diaspora. In the context of monotheism, an abstract and intangible God has no home or place of predilection.
If Israel had wanted to return to the old customs, he would immediately have created a monarchy as in biblical times and not a democracy.
The return of the Jews to Israel is due to a historical and identity attachment that makes of this country their country of origin and to the fact that the Europe where they used to live in majority drove them out or exterminated them and not to the fact that God is more present on this land than elsewhere.
b- Religions and fascism
The divine also served to give moral rules to the human being. However, the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have for example shown the inefficiency of churches in matters of morality.
This inefficiency has been illustrated by the two last world conflicts, the Holocaust and more recently by the genocide in Rwanda with a certain benevolence of the Church as shown by the reclassification in Europe of certain priests of Rwanda involved in the genocide.
Moreover, the inquisition, the extermination attempt of the Muslims of the former Yugoslavia and the surprising attempt to exterminate Muslims in Buddhist Burma shows many similarities between fascism and religions.
The link with fascism is also illustrated by the presence of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in Berlin during the war and his support for the extermination of the Jews; during his presence in Berlin the 13th and 23rd Muslim Waffen SS divisions were created. In the aftermath of the war, Syria and Egypt recruited Nazi military advisers as specialists of Jews extermination.
c- The German churches against denazification in the aftermath of the war
As early as 1945 the churches feared that a cleansing organized by the Allies in the public services would be favorable to the liberals, social democrats and communists and would make them lose their strong support by the conservatives. This opposition in particular of the Evangelical Church is also explained by the compromise of a large number of pastors with Nazism.
d- Reasonable place of religions
Free from divine, the religions could become identity or national landmarks by tradition, culture and history. Thus human beings can keep their roots in a tolerant universe; moreover the growing mixture of people of different origins goes in this direction. The civil life and justice should remain under the sole responsibility of the secular democratic States which within the framework of the Human Rights to suit everyone.
Despite the global growth of atheism in developed countries, with sometimes hostile reactions and references to the past in response to the flow of refugees from poor countries, inter-religious conflicts are appearing in the least developed countries which represent a large part of the world's population.
In the year of 2017 alone, the world's population grew by 82 million people (births minus deaths), which is the equivalent of the population of Turkey or Iran.
The world population reaches 7, 6 billion inhabitants, which is an excess over of the planet's capacity if everyone should have a standard of living equivalent to that of the developed countries. Population growth is individually a kind of economic security but globally leads to an economical dead end and religions often incite people to reproduce. 20 countries i.e. 10% of the countries represented in the UN represent 70% of the world population, 10 countries i.e. 5% of the UN countries represent 58% of the world population and China and India represent 37% of the world population.
To avoid facing death and avoid the consequences of the decomposition of corpses, men most often buried the corpses and religions make of it a cult. Population growth means that as the number of dead accumulates, burial places take up space and encroach on the land of the living people who in some countries should resigns to inhabit in the cemeteries. The ever-increasing burial of corpses (58 million deaths in 2017 alone, almost the entire population of Italy) implies an extension of the burial places and carries a risk in certain cases of groundwater pollution and epidemics. Cremation would be a better option to preserve the planet.
The planet must be protected from Human beings and cannot rely on an imaginary substitute father like the divine to solve its problems.